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观点 | 支撑短视频传播力、竞争力的底层逻辑
2021-01-15作者:陆(lu)小(xiao)华新闻来源:《中(zhong)国出版》浏览人次:2

  【摘 要】短视(shi)(shi)频已成为当(dang)今互(hu)联网(wang)传(chuan)播的(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)内(nei)(nei)容形态之一,其(qi)(qi)生(sheng)产与传(chuan)播面临观(guan)看时间、观(guan)看方式(shi)、匹配效(xiao)(xiao)率、结构(gou)(gou)性过(guo)剩四重结构(gou)(gou)性问(wen)题或(huo)限制。解析支撑短视(shi)(shi)频传(chuan)播力(li)(li)的(de)(de)内(nei)(nei)在逻(luo)(luo)(luo)辑(ji)(ji)(ji),有(you)(you)助于做出更(geng)好的(de)(de)短视(shi)(shi)频产品。决(jue)定(ding)短视(shi)(shi)频传(chuan)播力(li)(li)、竞(jing)争力(li)(li)底层(ceng)逻(luo)(luo)(luo)辑(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)竞(jing)争逻(luo)(luo)(luo)辑(ji)(ji)(ji)、需求(qiu)逻(luo)(luo)(luo)辑(ji)(ji)(ji)、影响逻(luo)(luo)(luo)辑(ji)(ji)(ji)、价值(zhi)逻(luo)(luo)(luo)辑(ji)(ji)(ji)。短视(shi)(shi)频产品的(de)(de)竞(jing)争逻(luo)(luo)(luo)辑(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)在结构(gou)(gou)性过(guo)剩中筛选短缺选择(ze)方向,即寻找(zhao)相对供给短缺的(de)(de)领域(yu)、品类(lei)、供给方式(shi)和服(fu)务方式(shi),由(you)此(ci)作(zuo)为方向选择(ze)、资源分配、竞(jing)争策略确定(ding)的(de)(de)依(yi)据。短视(shi)(shi)频产品的(de)(de)需求(qiu)逻(luo)(luo)(luo)辑(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)回(hui)归以(yi)短视(shi)(shi)频服(fu)务满足核(he)心(xin)需求(qiu),能够驱动多轮再传(chuan)播的(de)(de)内(nei)(nei)容要(yao)符合有(you)(you)需求(qiu)、有(you)(you)效(xiao)(xiao)益、有(you)(you)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming)、有(you)(you)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)振(zhen)的(de)(de)要(yao)求(qiu)。从更(geng)深层(ceng)面解析内(nei)(nei)容与人的(de)(de)关(guan)系可以(yi)发现(xian),内(nei)(nei)容具有(you)(you)实现(xian)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)知(zhi)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)处、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)振(zhen)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)享(xiang)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)识六(liu)个功能,因而,短视(shi)(shi)频产品的(de)(de)影响逻(luo)(luo)(luo)辑(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)理解人心(xin)和利益诉(su)求(qiu)以(yi)获(huo)得共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)情(qing)基(ji)础。短视(shi)(shi)频产品思想含量(liang)决(jue)定(ding)了其(qi)(qi)质(zhi)量(liang)水准和深层(ceng)影响力(li)(li),其(qi)(qi)价值(zhi)逻(luo)(luo)(luo)辑(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)温度(du)、硬(ying)度(du)与融合的(de)(de)升华。

  【关键词】短视频   竞争(zheng)逻辑   需求逻辑   影响逻辑   价(jia)值逻辑

 

 

  在(zai)(zai)多重力(li)量的(de)(de)(de)推动下,短视(shi)频(pin)(pin)已(yi)经成为当今互联网传(chuan)播的(de)(de)(de)主要(yao)内(nei)容(rong)形态之一。[1]短视(shi)频(pin)(pin)以(yi)其适应受众使用(yong)便携工具(ju)随时观看(kan)的(de)(de)(de)体(ti)量,以(yi)其让受众产(chan)(chan)生(sheng)共鸣的(de)(de)(de)多样化表达手段,以(yi)其利(li)用(yong)影(ying)像、语言、音效(xiao)多维度传(chuan)递信息的(de)(de)(de)在(zai)(zai)场感(gan)和丰富体(ti)验,成为越来越有(you)(you)竞争力(li)的(de)(de)(de)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)形态,也(ye)成为媒体(ti)融合转型的(de)(de)(de)首(shou)选(xuan)目标之一。短视(shi)频(pin)(pin)内(nei)容(rong)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)者(zhe)希望(wang)自己(ji)制作(zuo)的(de)(de)(de)短视(shi)频(pin)(pin)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)有(you)(you)更(geng)多播放(fang)、更(geng)广传(chuan)播、更(geng)强影(ying)响(xiang),甚至成为爆款,成为现象(xiang)级(ji)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)。短视(shi)频(pin)(pin)成为爆款既有(you)(you)偶然(ran)因(yin)素(su)(su),也(ye)有(you)(you)一些既定因(yin)素(su)(su)在(zai)(zai)发挥基础性作(zuo)用(yong)。这(zhei)不仅需要(yao)灵光闪闪的(de)(de)(de)创意、精致高质的(de)(de)(de)制作(zuo)、专业协同的(de)(de)(de)努力(li),还需要(yao)研究从一个内(nei)容(rong)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)到一个现象(xiang)级(ji)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)之间蕴藏(zang)着(zhe)何种规(gui)律(lv),有(you)(you)什么底层逻(luo)辑在(zai)(zai)起关键性作(zuo)用(yong)。解析决定短视(shi)频(pin)(pin)传(chuan)播力(li)、竞争力(li)的(de)(de)(de)内(nei)在(zai)(zai)逻(luo)辑,有(you)(you)助于在(zai)(zai)把握(wo)规(gui)律(lv)的(de)(de)(de)基础上,做(zuo)出(chu)更(geng)好的(de)(de)(de)短视(shi)频(pin)(pin)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)。

 

  一、竞争逻辑:结构性过剩中筛选短缺选择方向

 

  当今世界,移(yi)动、社(she)交、可视(shi)既具有技术、工具、使用(yong)的便(bian)利性(xing)、亲近性(xing)、易得性(xing)、易参与(yu)性(xing),又有越(yue)(yue)来越(yue)(yue)多(duo)(duo)的产(chan)(chan)品形态、体(ti)(ti)验方式和激励手段(duan),由此(ci)体(ti)(ti)现出(chu)巨(ju)大的卷入(ru)能量,迅速使绝大多(duo)(duo)数网(wang)民成为移(yi)动社(she)交、移(yi)动视(shi)频(pin)的用(yong)户(hu),从(cong)而使传(chuan)播(bo)移(yi)动化、社(she)交化、可视(shi)化的发展趋(qu)势演变成一种(zhong)浪潮。越(yue)(yue)来越(yue)(yue)多(duo)(duo)的包括媒体(ti)(ti)在(zai)内的社(she)会主体(ti)(ti)和个(ge)人(ren)加入(ru)到短(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)视(shi)频(pin)内容的制作和传(chuan)播(bo)中来,短(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)视(shi)频(pin)用(yong)户(hu)也呈现持续迅速增加的态势。据《第46次中国互联网(wang)络发展状况统(tong)计(ji)报告(gao)》显示:在(zai)我(wo)国9.40亿网(wang)民中,使用(yong)手机上网(wang)的比例达99.2%;短(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)视(shi)频(pin)用(yong)户(hu)规模为8.18亿,较2020年3月增长(zhang)4461万,占网(wang)民整体(ti)(ti)的87.0%。可以(yi)预见,未来短(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)视(shi)频(pin)用(yong)户(hu)还(hai)会继续增加,从(cong)而为短(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)视(shi)频(pin)的生产(chan)(chan)和传(chuan)播(bo)提(ti)供(gong)新(xin)的需求(qiu)。但就整体(ti)(ti)格(ge)局(ju)而言,短(duan)(duan)(duan)(duan)视(shi)频(pin)的生产(chan)(chan)与(yu)传(chuan)播(bo)面临四重结构(gou)性(xing)问(wen)题或限制。

  1.观看时间限制

  短(duan)视(shi)频总供应量、播放平台(tai)、生产者(zhe)、内容种(zhong)类都在迅速增(zeng)加,即使是(shi)重度短(duan)视(shi)频用(yong)(yong)户,可用(yong)(yong)以(yi)观看(kan)短(duan)视(shi)频的(de)时间(jian)(jian)与注意力也是(shi)有(you)限的(de),何况大多数用(yong)(yong)户仍是(shi)普通(tong)兼用(yong)(yong)性用(yong)(yong)户,专门用(yong)(yong)在短(duan)视(shi)频上的(de)时间(jian)(jian)就更(geng)为有(you)限。

  2.观看方式限制

  新媒体传播使人们养(yang)成(cheng)了特(te)有的一瞥式阅(yue)读(du)(du)和(he)概(gai)览式阅(yue)读(du)(du)的浅(qian)阅(yue)读(du)(du)习(xi)惯。这种快(kuai)速(su)“刷取(qu)”的阅(yue)读(du)(du)习(xi)惯被人们带到(dao)视(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)的观看行为中来,与(yu)(yu)短视(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)按时(shi)间顺序播放、难以快(kuai)速(su)浏览形(xing)成(cheng)一种冲突。正是因此,小(xiao)视(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)快(kuai)速(su)崛起。毕竟(jing),10秒(miao)左右的小(xiao)视(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)可适应受(shou)众(zhong)(zhong)快(kuai)速(su)“刷取(qu)”、浏览获知(zhi)的观看习(xi)惯,借浅(qian)传播形(xing)成(cheng)沉浸式体验,借易参与(yu)(yu)性(xing)形(xing)成(cheng)深层互动,从而(er)产(chan)生(sheng)特(te)殊魅力。媒体习(xi)惯做(zuo)的资(zi)讯性(xing)或观点性(xing)短视(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)虽然与(yu)(yu)小(xiao)视(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)形(xing)成(cheng)了错(cuo)位(wei),但还是受(shou)到(dao)受(shou)众(zhong)(zhong)观看习(xi)惯的限制。

  3.匹配效率限制

  在观(guan)看(kan)短(duan)视(shi)频时,受(shou)众(zhong)要观(guan)看(kan)一定(ding)时间,才知道是(shi)否有(you)兴(xing)趣,是(shi)否适合自己。因而,短(duan)视(shi)频产(chan)品(pin)的(de)(de)巨量、丰富与(yu)受(shou)众(zhong)兴(xing)趣与(yu)需(xu)求间,存(cun)在匹配效(xiao)率过(guo)低的(de)(de)问题。短(duan)视(shi)频生产(chan)者和传播者往往依靠(kao)几种方(fang)式提升匹配效(xiao)率。一是(shi)依靠(kao)标题与(yu)内容简介作(zuo)为短(duan)视(shi)频的(de)(de)辅助,以帮助受(shou)众(zhong)选择(ze)是(shi)否观(guan)看(kan);二(er)是(shi)通过(guo)平台推送(song)与(yu)推荐,提升受(shou)众(zhong)选择(ze)的(de)(de)可能(neng)性;三(san)是(shi)依托制(zhi)作(zuo)者或产(chan)品(pin)的(de)(de)品(pin)牌,以高识别度提升观(guan)看(kan)量。

  4.结构性过剩限制

  从(cong)受(shou)众(zhong)需(xu)求(qiu)角度分(fen)析,目前短(duan)视频供(gong)应趋同现象(xiang)在加剧。无论是(shi)(shi)所传播(bo)内(nei)容的类别(bie)(bie),或是(shi)(shi)短(duan)视频产品的特征,还是(shi)(shi)制作(zuo)手法与网络(luo),对(dui)受(shou)众(zhong)而言,短(duan)视频作(zuo)品可(ke)区(qu)分(fen)度并不(bu)(bu)高,生产者与传播(bo)者的可(ke)识别(bie)(bie)性不(bu)(bu)强。[2]从(cong)某种(zhong)(zhong)意(yi)义上说,存在结构性过(guo)剩现象(xiang)。这种(zhong)(zhong)现象(xiang)的产生,与人们对(dui)短(duan)视频发展整体观(guan)察研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)不(bu)(bu)够(gou)(gou)、对(dui)受(shou)众(zhong)核心需(xu)求(qiu)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)不(bu)(bu)够(gou)(gou),是(shi)(shi)有密切关系的。

  现象(xiang)级短(duan)视频的(de)(de)核心特征是什(shen)么?从表层(ceng)看,是播放(fang)量巨大,话题(ti)性(xing)(xing)很(hen)强,从而引(yin)发(fa)更(geng)多维度的(de)(de)传播,被人们称为爆款。但从底(di)层(ceng)逻辑(ji)看,恰恰是抓住(zhu)了(le)最大基(ji)数(shu)受众(zhong)需(xu)(xu)(xu)求(qiu)(qiu)中还没有被很(hen)好满足(zu)的(de)(de)细分部(bu)分,或者说,恰恰抓住(zhu)了(le)结(jie)构(gou)性(xing)(xing)短(duan)缺(que)部(bu)分。因此,在(zai)短(duan)视频供(gong)给(ji)结(jie)构(gou)性(xing)(xing)过剩(sheng)的(de)(de)格局中,发(fa)展短(duan)视频业(ye)务的(de)(de)底(di)层(ceng)逻辑(ji)就应当是本能地(di)寻(xun)找相对供(gong)给(ji)短(duan)缺(que)的(de)(de)领(ling)域、品(pin)类、供(gong)给(ji)方式和(he)服务方式,由此作为方向选(xuan)择、资源分配(pei)、竞(jing)争策略确定的(de)(de)依(yi)据。抓住(zhu)最大基(ji)数(shu)受众(zhong)需(xu)(xu)(xu)求(qiu)(qiu)中还没有很(hen)好被满足(zu)的(de)(de)细分部(bu)分,就能够以(yi)相对低的(de)(de)成本和(he)资源消(xiao)耗破解观(guan)看时间限(xian)制、观(guan)看方式限(xian)制和(he)匹(pi)配(pei)效率限(xian)制。在(zai)精神产品(pin)领(ling)域,人们同样希(xi)望能够创造出(chu)某类需(xu)(xu)(xu)求(qiu)(qiu),总体上(shang)看,即使是天(tian)赐良机,也还需(xu)(xu)(xu)要试(shi)错(cuo)(cuo)。沿着需(xu)(xu)(xu)求(qiu)(qiu)结(jie)构(gou),权衡需(xu)(xu)(xu)求(qiu)(qiu)满足(zu)程(cheng)度,试(shi)错(cuo)(cuo)的(de)(de)成本也会更(geng)低一(yi)些。

 

  二、需求逻辑:回归以短视频服务满足核心需求

 

  人们为(wei)什么会花时间(jian)观(guan)看短(duan)(duan)视(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)?除了方(fang)便、有(you)(you)(you)推(tui)送、信息(xi)丰(feng)富等(deng)(deng)外在因素,一(yi)定存在最基本的(de)核(he)心(xin)(xin)需(xu)求(qiu)(qiu)。观(guan)看短(duan)(duan)视(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin),实质(zhi)上是在接受围(wei)绕(rao)短(duan)(duan)视(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)的(de)内(nei)容(rong)服(fu)务(wu)(wu)。这种服(fu)务(wu)(wu)的(de)存在依据,就是人们有(you)(you)(you)基本需(xu)求(qiu)(qiu)。人们之(zhi)所以选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)短(duan)(duan)视(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)而(er)非文字(zi)、图片等(deng)(deng)其他服(fu)务(wu)(wu)满(man)(man)足(zu)(zu)(zu)这一(yi)需(xu)求(qiu)(qiu),是因为(wei)它(ta)体验更(geng)好,时间(jian)精(jing)力(li)成本更(geng)低。如此多的(de)短(duan)(duan)视(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)服(fu)务(wu)(wu)中,选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)了某(mou)一(yi)类短(duan)(duan)视(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)产品(pin)、某(mou)一(yi)个(ge)内(nei)容(rong)服(fu)务(wu)(wu)提(ti)供者的(de)短(duan)(duan)视(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)产品(pin),既可(ke)能是因为(wei)这一(yi)个(ge)视(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)被(bei)推(tui)送到(dao)面前,或者是内(nei)容(rong)提(ti)示做得有(you)(you)(you)吸引力(li);更(geng)可(ke)能是因为(wei)这个(ge)短(duan)(duan)视(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)服(fu)务(wu)(wu)提(ti)供者以往的(de)产品(pin)满(man)(man)足(zu)(zu)(zu)了自己的(de)核(he)心(xin)(xin)需(xu)求(qiu)(qiu),情感有(you)(you)(you)共鸣,受众(zhong)心(xin)(xin)中留下印记而(er)形成品(pin)牌影响力(li),从而(er)更(geng)愿意选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)其后续内(nei)容(rong)产品(pin)。“需(xu)求(qiu)(qiu)满(man)(man)足(zu)(zu)(zu)逻(luo)辑(ji)是商业(ye)(ye)逻(luo)辑(ji)的(de)前提(ti)。满(man)(man)足(zu)(zu)(zu)价值如何兑现是满(man)(man)足(zu)(zu)(zu)逻(luo)辑(ji)和商业(ye)(ye)逻(luo)辑(ji)之(zhi)间(jian)的(de)连接点。”[3]越是竞争激烈,越是要紧紧把握受众(zhong)的(de)核(he)心(xin)(xin)需(xu)求(qiu)(qiu),回归核(he)心(xin)(xin)需(xu)求(qiu)(qiu)。因此,不(bu)停留于(yu)(yu)短(duan)(duan)视(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)形式,不(bu)满(man)(man)足(zu)(zu)(zu)于(yu)(yu)虚拟现实(VR)等(deng)(deng)新(xin)媒体手段(duan),不(bu)拘泥于(yu)(yu)音视(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)手段(duan)的(de)精(jing)致专业(ye)(ye),回归满(man)(man)足(zu)(zu)(zu)核(he)心(xin)(xin)需(xu)求(qiu)(qiu),短(duan)(duan)视(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)产品(pin)才(cai)有(you)(you)(you)真正长久的(de)竞争力(li)。

  什么是值得(de)生(sheng)产的内容?从方法论(lun)层(ceng)面(mian)说有四个维度,要满足四个方面(mian)的需求。

  1.“不知道”

  资讯(xun)类短(duan)视(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)面对(dui)(dui)的(de)(de)(de)核(he)心需(xu)(xu)求(qiu)(qiu),首先(xian)就(jiu)是解(jie)(jie)决“不知(zhi)(zhi)道(dao)(dao)”问(wen)题。这(zhei)个世(shi)界正在发(fa)(fa)(fa)生(sheng)什(shen)么?对(dui)(dui)我自己及我所关(guan)心的(de)(de)(de)人与领域会发(fa)(fa)(fa)生(sheng)什(shen)么影响。传统意义上的(de)(de)(de)新闻信(xin)息服(fu)务(wu),就(jiu)要(yao)每(mei)(mei)时每(mei)(mei)刻回答这(zhei)样的(de)(de)(de)问(wen)题。回归以(yi)短(duan)视(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)服(fu)务(wu)满足(zu)(zu)的(de)(de)(de)核(he)心需(xu)(xu)求(qiu)(qiu),就(jiu)要(yao)对(dui)(dui)受(shou)众基(ji)本(ben)需(xu)(xu)求(qiu)(qiu)中的(de)(de)(de)“不知(zhi)(zhi)道(dao)(dao)”从(cong)多个维度再细分(fen)。新华社的(de)(de)(de)视(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)业(ye)务(wu),实(shi)际上就(jiu)是依据其遍布(bu)世(shi)界的(de)(de)(de)采集(ji)网络(luo)解(jie)(jie)决受(shou)众“不知(zhi)(zhi)道(dao)(dao)”的(de)(de)(de)问(wen)题,以(yi)视(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)形(xing)态(tai)告诉(su)人们这(zhei)个世(shi)界正发(fa)(fa)(fa)生(sheng)什(shen)么事,以(yi)及是如何发(fa)(fa)(fa)生(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)。短(duan)视(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)既可(ke)能是比较精炼(lian)地提炼(lian)相关(guan)事实(shi),如同短(duan)视(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)频(pin)(pin)(pin)消息一般性(xing)地解(jie)(jie)决不知(zhi)(zhi)道(dao)(dao);更可(ke)能是人们希(xi)望看到的(de)(de)(de)文字难(nan)以(yi)描述(shu)、图(tu)片(pian)所不能替代的(de)(de)(de)变化着的(de)(de)(de)场景和(he)(he)细节。而且,往往是受(shou)众难(nan)以(yi)想象的(de)(de)(de)场景和(he)(he)细节,对(dui)(dui)受(shou)众更有需(xu)(xu)求(qiu)(qiu)满足(zu)(zu)感。

  2.“不确定”

  这(zhei)个(ge)世(shi)(shi)界(jie)(jie),唯一(yi)不(bu)(bu)变(bian)的(de)就(jiu)是(shi)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)。2020年更是(shi)出现(xian)了一(yi)系列难(nan)以(yi)预料的(de)变(bian)化(hua)(hua),让全(quan)世(shi)(shi)界(jie)(jie)都感到(dao)处在(zai)“不(bu)(bu)确(que)(que)定(ding)”状态(tai)(tai)(tai)。正是(shi)因(yin)(yin)为存在(zai)诸多不(bu)(bu)确(que)(que)定(ding)因(yin)(yin)素(su),受众对(dui)外部环境与面临(lin)问题存在(zai)诸多疑问而难(nan)以(yi)抉(jue)择、难(nan)以(yi)行动,解(jie)决(jue)“不(bu)(bu)确(que)(que)定(ding)”的(de)内(nei)容才更有(you)(you)(you)价值。无(wu)论是(shi)全(quan)球抗“疫”、经贸摩擦,还(hai)是(shi)地缘政治(zhi)、经济转型,不(bu)(bu)少企(qi)业(ye)和个(ge)人(ren)深受影响,“不(bu)(bu)确(que)(que)定(ding)”的(de)担忧和需求更为强烈。究竟发生了什么样的(de)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)?应该怎么看外部环境所发生的(de)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)?应该怎么办?主流媒体(ti)有(you)(you)(you)责任、有(you)(you)(you)优势也(ye)(ye)有(you)(you)(you)能力帮(bang)助他们(men)解(jie)决(jue)“不(bu)(bu)确(que)(que)定(ding)”问题,帮(bang)助他们(men)认识并应对(dui)这(zhei)些变(bian)化(hua)(hua)。分(fen)析情况、解(jie)读(du)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)、提供建议、有(you)(you)(you)所预见,这(zhei)是(shi)今(jin)天最有(you)(you)(you)价值的(de)内(nei)容,也(ye)(ye)是(shi)自媒体(ti)们(men)在(zai)努力与传统媒体(ti)争(zheng)抢(qiang)的(de)领(ling)域。短(duan)视频形态(tai)(tai)(tai)就(jiu)是(shi)最常采用的(de)内(nei)容形态(tai)(tai)(tai)之一(yi)。

  3.“不清楚”

  知(zhi)识(shi)弥补(bu)是一(yi)个(ge)社(she)会最(zui)(zui)基(ji)本、最(zui)(zui)持(chi)久、最(zui)(zui)强(qiang)劲的(de)(de)(de)(de)需(xu)(xu)求(qiu),也是最(zui)(zui)大(da)(da)基(ji)数受众(zhong)核(he)(he)心(xin)需(xu)(xu)求(qiu)中(zhong)重(zhong)(zhong)合(he)度(du)最(zui)(zui)大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)部分,每一(yi)个(ge)人(ren)都需(xu)(xu)要(yao)不(bu)断补(bu)充知(zhi)识(shi)。现今越来越多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)人(ren)愿意付费(fei)购(gou)买(mai)内容,知(zhi)识(shi)付费(fei)已经成为(wei)一(yi)种(zhong)风潮或(huo)习惯,恰恰说明(ming)人(ren)们对(dui)知(zhi)识(shi)弥补(bu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)需(xu)(xu)求(qiu)。研究分析人(ren)们愿意付费(fei)购(gou)买(mai)什么(me)样的(de)(de)(de)(de)知(zhi)识(shi),就会发现主流(liu)(liu)媒体(ti)回(hui)归核(he)(he)心(xin)需(xu)(xu)求(qiu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)切(qie)入点。抗(kang)疫(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)需(xu)(xu)要(yao),使得全社(she)会高度(du)依赖(lai)智能(neng)(neng)手机完(wan)成健康码查询、到(dao)访登记等(deng)事(shi)务,在线教(jiao)育(yu)、视(shi)频会议成为(wei)完(wan)成教(jiao)学(xue)和工(gong)作的(de)(de)(de)(de)基(ji)本形(xing)式。观(guan)察每一(yi)个(ge)公众(zhong)场(chang)所(suo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)入口就会发现,尽管几(ji)乎所(suo)有人(ren)都有智能(neng)(neng)手机,但相当(dang)多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)人(ren)还(hai)需(xu)(xu)要(yao)别人(ren)帮助才(cai)能(neng)(neng)找(zhao)到(dao)各地的(de)(de)(de)(de)健康码,才(cai)能(neng)(neng)完(wan)成各种(zhong)预约、到(dao)访手续。这(zhei)样的(de)(de)(de)(de)内容同样应当(dang)成为(wei)主流(liu)(liu)媒体(ti)短(duan)视(shi)频业务的(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)方面。

  提(ti)(ti)供知识性短视(shi)频服(fu)务,不仅是(shi)主(zhu)流媒(mei)(mei)体回归(gui)核心需(xu)求的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)体现,也(ye)(ye)是(shi)增(zeng)强竞(jing)争力的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)需(xu)要。传统媒(mei)(mei)体所做的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)新(xin)(xin)媒(mei)(mei)体终端(duan)遇到的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)最大问题,不是(shi)一般(ban)意义上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)内(nei)容质(zhi)量是(shi)否够(gou)好,而是(shi)受(shou)众(zhong)使用频次(ci)低。从战略层面看,提(ti)(ti)供内(nei)容服(fu)务、知识性服(fu)务和各种新(xin)(xin)服(fu)务,能(neng)够(gou)有效增(zeng)加(jia)受(shou)众(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)使用频次(ci),从而增(zeng)加(jia)主(zhu)流媒(mei)(mei)体产(chan)品内(nei)容与受(shou)众(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)接触可能(neng),也(ye)(ye)就更好地实现了引导的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)目的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。

  4.“不能够”

  除了注重知(zhi)识(shi)弥补,还(hai)要满足人(ren)们(men)对解(jie)(jie)决(jue)方法(fa)的(de)(de)需求(qiu)。严(yan)格意(yi)义上(shang)说,知(zhi)识(shi)可(ke)能是(shi)散碎的(de)(de),还(hai)不能构(gou)成真正(zheng)意(yi)义上(shang)的(de)(de)“能力(li)”。“能力(li)”的(de)(de)学习比(bi)“知(zhi)识(shi)”的(de)(de)学习更重要。这(zhei)是(shi)人(ren)们(men)的(de)(de)基本需求(qiu)。媒体利用短(duan)视(shi)频等(deng)内容(rong)形(xing)态和(he)服务方式,提(ti)(ti)供(gong)(gong)解(jie)(jie)决(jue)问题、应对困(kun)难的(de)(de)方法(fa),提(ti)(ti)供(gong)(gong)思(si)想(xiang)方法(fa)和(he)工作(zuo),有(you)助于提(ti)(ti)升人(ren)们(men)的(de)(de)专项能力(li)和(he)综合能力(li)。这(zhei)样的(de)(de)内容(rong)与所(suo)(suo)谓观点(dian)性内容(rong)有(you)所(suo)(suo)不同,更注重方法(fa)的(de)(de)展(zhan)示和(he)传授,是(shi)新服务框(kuang)架下的(de)(de)高价值内容(rong),也是(shi)便于主流媒体在短(duan)视(shi)频领域发挥优势(shi)的(de)(de)重要领域。

 

  三、影响逻辑:理解人心和利益诉求获得共情基础

 

  2020年6月,一(yi)(yi)(yi)个(ge)打(da)工(gong)者(zhe)吴桂(gui)春(chun)与(yu)东莞(guan)图(tu)书(shu)(shu)馆(guan)(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)故事(shi)(shi)迅速刷屏,打(da)动(dong)了(le)许多人(ren)(ren)。事(shi)(shi)情(qing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)真正(zheng)缘起并不(bu)(bu)是简单起于(yu)他(ta)(ta)在退借(jie)书(shu)(shu)证(zheng)时(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)留(liu)(liu)言(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan),而(er)是开始(shi)于(yu)一(yi)(yi)(yi)个(ge)公(gong)共(gong)图(tu)书(shu)(shu)馆(guan)(guan)总服务(wu)(wu)台的(de)(de)(de)(de)值班馆(guan)(guan)员(yuan)(yuan)注(zhu)意到(dao)了(le)一(yi)(yi)(yi)个(ge)读者(zhe)退借(jie)书(shu)(shu)证(zheng)时(shi)(shi),交了(le)身(shen)份证(zheng),却(que)把(ba)借(jie)书(shu)(shu)证(zheng)放在手(shou)里摩娑再三、不(bu)(bu)忍放下(xia),因此拿(na)出(chu)读者(zhe)留(liu)(liu)言(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)表请他(ta)(ta)留(liu)(liu)言(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan),于(yu)是才有(you)了(le)这位(wei)读者(zhe)133字以(yi)“虽万般不(bu)(bu)舍,然生活所迫,余生永(yong)不(bu)(bu)忘你”结(jie)尾的(de)(de)(de)(de)留(liu)(liu)言(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan),才有(you)了(le)另一(yi)(yi)(yi)位(wei)馆(guan)(guan)员(yuan)(yuan)吃饭回来看到(dao)留(liu)(liu)言(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)感(gan)觉“就(jiu)像一(yi)(yi)(yi)封情(qing)书(shu)(shu)一(yi)(yi)(yi)样”而(er)转发(fa)到(dao)单位(wei)群里,才有(you)了(le)第二(er)天东莞(guan)电视台和《东莞(guan)时(shi)(shi)报》记者(zhe)的(de)(de)(de)(de)采访(fang)。这位(wei)读者(zhe)以(yi)当地人(ren)(ren)社部门帮他(ta)(ta)找到(dao)工(gong)作让他(ta)(ta)留(liu)(liu)下(xia)来而(er)有(you)了(le)美好的(de)(de)(de)(de)结(jie)局,东莞(guan)图(tu)书(shu)(shu)馆(guan)(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)公(gong)共(gong)服务(wu)(wu)成(cheng)为全国性(xing)(xing)话题引人(ren)(ren)思(si)考。但我们要(yao)研(yan)究的(de)(de)(de)(de)还有(you),是什(shen)(shen)么(me)因素(su)(su)使得一(yi)(yi)(yi)个(ge)留(liu)(liu)言(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)成(cheng)为现(xian)象级传(chuan)播(bo),这个(ge)留(liu)(liu)言(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)驱动(dong)跨圈传(chuan)播(bo)、再传(chuan)播(bo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)核心(xin)(xin)力量是什(shen)(shen)么(me)?恰(qia)恰(qia)是一(yi)(yi)(yi)个(ge)图(tu)书(shu)(shu)馆(guan)(guan)员(yuan)(yuan)出(chu)于(yu)职业素(su)(su)养和对人(ren)(ren)心(xin)(xin)理解的(de)(de)(de)(de)共(gong)情(qing)心(xin)(xin),和“余生永(yong)不(bu)(bu)忘你”的(de)(de)(de)(de)共(gong)情(qing)力量,成(cheng)为决定这个(ge)留(liu)(liu)言(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)成(cheng)为现(xian)象级传(chuan)播(bo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)关键性(xing)(xing)因素(su)(su)。

  在(zai)新媒体传(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)中,最(zui)有(you)(you)效率的(de)(de)(de)(de)传(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)并不(bu)(bu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)算法(fa)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)推送。所(suo)(suo)有(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)(de)点击数据(ju)都只能(neng)(neng)说(shuo)明(ming)人们既往行(xing)为(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)特征,不(bu)(bu)能(neng)(neng)说(shuo)明(ming)此刻(ke)的(de)(de)(de)(de)内(nei)心(xin)活动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)和(he)(he)深(shen)层(ceng)需(xu)求(qiu)。最(zui)有(you)(you)效率的(de)(de)(de)(de)传(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)一定是(shi)(shi)(shi)内(nei)容(rong)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)。什么样的(de)(de)(de)(de)内(nei)容(rong)能(neng)(neng)够(gou)实现(xian)有(you)(you)效传(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)、进而(er)(er)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)多(duo)轮再传(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)呢?第(di)一是(shi)(shi)(shi)有(you)(you)需(xu)求(qiu)。既包括(kuo)前文所(suo)(suo)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)析的(de)(de)(de)(de)“不(bu)(bu)知道”“不(bu)(bu)确(que)定”“不(bu)(bu)清(qing)楚(chu)”“不(bu)(bu)能(neng)(neng)够(gou)”,也(ye)包括(kuo)其他方(fang)面,可(ke)以从多(duo)个(ge)层(ceng)面、多(duo)个(ge)维度分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)析。第(di)二是(shi)(shi)(shi)有(you)(you)效益。人们获取相(xiang)应内(nei)容(rong)之后确(que)有(you)(you)所(suo)(suo)得(de),而(er)(er)不(bu)(bu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)只满足他的(de)(de)(de)(de)好奇心(xin)或消磨(mo)了(le)时间。第(di)三是(shi)(shi)(shi)有(you)(you)共(gong)鸣(ming)。心(xin)理上有(you)(you)所(suo)(suo)触动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),在(zai)情感(gan)上才能(neng)(neng)有(you)(you)所(suo)(suo)共(gong)鸣(ming)。甚而(er)(er)有(you)(you)了(le)更深(shen)层(ceng)面的(de)(de)(de)(de)共(gong)鸣(ming),不(bu)(bu)只是(shi)(shi)(shi)有(you)(you)所(suo)(suo)感(gan)触,而(er)(er)是(shi)(shi)(shi)被感(gan)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。第(di)四(si)是(shi)(shi)(shi)有(you)(you)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)享动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)力。内(nei)容(rong)本(ben)身、内(nei)容(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)表达(da)方(fang)式(shi)和(he)(he)质量,使受众(zhong)(zhong)有(you)(you)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)享欲望和(he)(he)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)享动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)力;因为(wei)感(gan)觉(jue)有(you)(you)价值(zhi)又被触动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),进而(er)(er)有(you)(you)了(le)转发、评论等再传(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)行(xing)为(wei),从而(er)(er)使内(nei)容(rong)实现(xian)了(le)新的(de)(de)(de)(de)传(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)。受众(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)享动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)力可(ke)以分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)为(wei)表层(ceng)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)享动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)力和(he)(he)深(shen)层(ceng)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)享动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)力。而(er)(er)决定深(shen)层(ceng)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)享动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)力的(de)(de)(de)(de),是(shi)(shi)(shi)内(nei)容(rong)与受众(zhong)(zhong)在(zai)价值(zhi)观层(ceng)面的(de)(de)(de)(de)共(gong)鸣(ming)、共(gong)振。

  从(cong)(cong)更(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)深(shen)(shen)(shen)层(ceng)面(mian)解析内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)关(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi),内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)具有(you)(you)(you)(you)六个(ge)功能(neng)(neng)(neng),即实(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)知(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)处(chu)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)振(zhen)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)享(xiang)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)识(shi)。在(zai)(zai)内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)关(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)上(shang),内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)功能(neng)(neng)(neng)第(di)(di)一(yi)就是(shi)(shi)(shi)实(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)知(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)们(men)希望媒体(ti)(ti)帮(bang)助解决“不(bu)(bu)(bu)知(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)道”问题,就是(shi)(shi)(shi)为(wei)了实(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)“共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)知(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)”。如果不(bu)(bu)(bu)“共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)知(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)”,不(bu)(bu)(bu)清楚这个(ge)世界正在(zai)(zai)发(fa)生(sheng)什么(me),就会(hui)(hui)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)其他人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)有(you)(you)(you)(you)隔(ge)阂感。社(she)交关(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)(yao)基础是(shi)(shi)(shi)有(you)(you)(you)(you)“共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)知(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)”部(bu)分,有(you)(you)(you)(you)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)知(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)而不(bu)(bu)(bu)陌生(sheng)、不(bu)(bu)(bu)孤(gu)立。第(di)(di)二是(shi)(shi)(shi)实(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)处(chu)。通过(guo)相关(guan)(guan)(guan)内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)传(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)和(he)(he)(he)获得而能(neng)(neng)(neng)够适(shi)应(ying)社(she)会(hui)(hui)变化,应(ying)对复杂(za)和(he)(he)(he)简单问题。第(di)(di)三是(shi)(shi)(shi)实(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming)。共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming),是(shi)(shi)(shi)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)构成共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)同体(ti)(ti)、构成社(she)会(hui)(hui)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)更(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)具实(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)在(zai)(zai)意(yi)义的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)基础,共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming)从(cong)(cong)而共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)情(qing),共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)情(qing)而能(neng)(neng)(neng)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming)。在(zai)(zai)社(she)交传(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)中,好(hao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong),除了有(you)(you)(you)(you)较(jiao)高(gao)价值点,有(you)(you)(you)(you)较(jiao)好(hao)切(qie)入(ru)点,也(ye)一(yi)定(ding)应(ying)当(dang)有(you)(you)(you)(you)较(jiao)强(qiang)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming)点,从(cong)(cong)而引发(fa)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming)、实(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming)、聚(ju)集共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming)。能(neng)(neng)(neng)引发(fa)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong),在(zai)(zai)社(she)交传(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)中人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)们(men)才(cai)更(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)有(you)(you)(you)(you)动力(li)(li)(li)(li)分享(xiang)、再传(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)。第(di)(di)四是(shi)(shi)(shi)实(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)振(zhen)。即人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)们(men)在(zai)(zai)价值观层(ceng)面(mian)能(neng)(neng)(neng)够共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)振(zhen),这是(shi)(shi)(shi)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)关(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)更(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)深(shen)(shen)(shen)层(ceng)、更(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)核(he)心的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)部(bu)分。仔(zi)细(xi)解析传(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)构成和(he)(he)(he)核(he)心可以发(fa)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),价值观传(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)是(shi)(shi)(shi)最深(shen)(shen)(shen)层(ceng)最有(you)(you)(you)(you)力(li)(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。能(neng)(neng)(neng)够产生(sheng)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming)、聚(ju)集共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming),进(jin)而在(zai)(zai)价值观层(ceng)面(mian)产生(sheng)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)振(zhen),既实(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)了影响人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)目(mu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),也(ye)能(neng)(neng)(neng)激发(fa)强(qiang)烈的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)分享(xiang)欲望和(he)(he)(he)动作,从(cong)(cong)而实(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)了传(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)目(mu)标和(he)(he)(he)驱动再传(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)效果。第(di)(di)五(wu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)实(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)享(xiang)。有(you)(you)(you)(you)了共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming)和(he)(he)(he)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)振(zhen),人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)们(men)就会(hui)(hui)有(you)(you)(you)(you)更(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)动力(li)(li)(li)(li)去共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)享(xiang)。共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)享(xiang)是(shi)(shi)(shi)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)关(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)进(jin)一(yi)步深(shen)(shen)(shen)化,而不(bu)(bu)(bu)仅(jin)是(shi)(shi)(shi)一(yi)种传(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)关(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)。在(zai)(zai)传(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)统(tong)时代或人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)际传(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)框架(jia)下,共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)享(xiang)私密信(xin)息(xi)(xi)体(ti)(ti)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)关(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi);在(zai)(zai)社(she)交传(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)时代,共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)享(xiang)信(xin)息(xi)(xi),即使不(bu)(bu)(bu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)私密信(xin)息(xi)(xi),也(ye)体(ti)(ti)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)关(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)紧密程度。第(di)(di)六是(shi)(shi)(shi)实(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)识(shi)。能(neng)(neng)(neng)够实(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)知(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)处(chu)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)鸣(ming)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)振(zhen)、共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)享(xiang),在(zai)(zai)情(qing)感与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)价值观层(ceng)面(mian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)关(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)得到(dao)更(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)有(you)(you)(you)(you)力(li)(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)巩固,从(cong)(cong)而有(you)(you)(you)(you)了更(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)多共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)识(shi)。共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)识(shi)是(shi)(shi)(shi)一(yi)个(ge)社(she)会(hui)(hui)、一(yi)个(ge)民族、一(yi)个(ge)国家不(bu)(bu)(bu)断巩固强(qiang)盛的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)(yao)基础。因此,好(hao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong),是(shi)(shi)(shi)能(neng)(neng)(neng)够帮(bang)助实(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)文化认(ren)同、时尚认(ren)同、社(she)会(hui)(hui)认(ren)同和(he)(he)(he)心理认(ren)同的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong),是(shi)(shi)(shi)能(neng)(neng)(neng)够增(zeng)强(qiang)共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)识(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)。这样(yang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)不(bu)(bu)(bu)仅(jin)可能(neng)(neng)(neng)传(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)力(li)(li)(li)(li)更(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)强(qiang),对人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)们(men)也(ye)更(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)有(you)(you)(you)(you)价值。以这样(yang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)框架(jia)观察(cha)分析内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong),已经超越了对内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)传(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)(chuan)统(tong)认(ren)知(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),更(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)关(guan)(guan)(guan)注人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)核(he)心需求,更(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)关(guan)(guan)(guan)注内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)关(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi),更(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)关(guan)(guan)(guan)注内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)价值以及(ji)在(zai)(zai)形成共(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)识(shi)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)作用。从(cong)(cong)这个(ge)意(yi)义上(shang)讲,内(nei)(nei)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)是(shi)(shi)(shi)实(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)现(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)心灵相通的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)入(ru)口和(he)(he)(he)手段,而不(bu)(bu)(bu)只是(shi)(shi)(shi)行为(wei)、场景、工(gong)具、流(liu)量意(yi)义上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)入(ru)口。

 

  四、价值逻辑:短视频的温度、硬度与融合升华

 

  短视(shi)频(pin)(pin)的(de)(de)质量(liang)(liang)(liang)和影(ying)响力(li)(li),并不仅(jin)仅(jin)取决于影(ying)像、配(pei)音等传(chuan)统(tong)因(yin)素(su),也不仅(jin)仅(jin)依赖于其叙事结构(gou),“其思(si)(si)想含量(liang)(liang)(liang)决定(ding)了这件(jian)作品的(de)(de)深层(ceng)影(ying)响力(li)(li)”。[4]新(xin)华(hua)社音视(shi)频(pin)(pin)部(bu)曾经担负在主要领导(dao)人双边(bian)和多边(bian)外事活动中做出既有(you)“温(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)”又有(you)“深度(du)”短视(shi)频(pin)(pin)的(de)(de)任(ren)务。有(you)“温(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)”又有(you)“深度(du)”的(de)(de)时政短视(shi)频(pin)(pin),目标传(chuan)播渠道是(shi)(shi)(shi)网上(shang)传(chuan)播,特(te)别(bie)是(shi)(shi)(shi)在移动新(xin)媒(mei)体上(shang)传(chuan)播,传(chuan)播策略是(shi)(shi)(shi)力(li)(li)争在社交传(chuan)播中形成(cheng)多轮(lun)再传(chuan)播,以(yi)刷屏之效形成(cheng)特(te)殊影(ying)响力(li)(li)。这里,“温(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)”是(shi)(shi)(shi)丰(feng)富的(de)(de)细节与感染力(li)(li);而(er)“硬度(du)”则一(yi)定(ding)是(shi)(shi)(shi)思(si)(si)想含量(liang)(liang)(liang),是(shi)(shi)(shi)能够在价(jia)值观层(ceng)面影(ying)响人的(de)(de)内容(rong)(rong)。因(yin)此,“温(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)”和“硬度(du)”必须在融合(he)升华(hua)中实现统(tong)一(yi),不仅(jin)是(shi)(shi)(shi)传(chuan)统(tong)媒(mei)体内容(rong)(rong)优(you)势与新(xin)媒(mei)体表现手段上(shang)的(de)(de)融合(he)升华(hua),更是(shi)(shi)(shi)内容(rong)(rong)价(jia)值含量(liang)(liang)(liang)与思(si)(si)想高度(du)、思(si)(si)考深度(du)、表达力(li)(li)度(du)上(shang)的(de)(de)融合(he)升华(hua)。

  短视(shi)(shi)频在(zai)内容(rong)(rong)创作(zuo)过(guo)(guo)程中就(jiu)必须(xu)(xu)特(te)别(bie)注(zhu)重立(li)意(yi),立(li)意(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)下决定于(yu)是(shi)(shi)否让(rang)(rang)人在(zai)被感(gan)染(ran)(ran)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)同时(shi)(shi)被影(ying)(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)(xiang),不(bu)(bu)知(zhi)不(bu)(bu)觉(jue)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)或有(you)所感(gan)受(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)。切入角度(du)很多(duo)时(shi)(shi)候既影(ying)(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)“温(wen)度(du)”也影(ying)(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)“硬度(du)”。所以角度(du)选取(qu)必须(xu)(xu)既适应(ying)(ying)移(yi)(yi)动(dong)传播(bo)(bo)又能(neng)揭示出(chu)意(yi)义,既吸引(yin)点(dian)击又形(xing)成穿透(tou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)综合效(xiao)应(ying)(ying)。深(shen)刻影(ying)(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)短视(shi)(shi)频表(biao)达的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),不(bu)(bu)仅是(shi)(shi)内容(rong)(rong)选取(qu)、表(biao)现(xian)手法,更为(wei)(wei)重要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)叙(xu)述(shu)逻(luo)辑,要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)在(zai)两分钟左(zuo)右的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)视(shi)(shi)频中以一系列(lie)影(ying)(ying)(ying)像(xiang)(xiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)组(zu)接(jie)形(xing)成自洽逻(luo)辑;让(rang)(rang)流动(dong)影(ying)(ying)(ying)像(xiang)(xiang)以清(qing)晰逻(luo)辑自己叙(xu)述(shu)故事,感(gan)染(ran)(ran)、影(ying)(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)、说(shuo)服(fu)(fu)受(shou)众,而(er)画外音和(he)少量字(zi)幕只是(shi)(shi)起到强化(hua)(hua)、点(dian)化(hua)(hua)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)作(zuo)用(yong)。而(er)关键影(ying)(ying)(ying)像(xiang)(xiang)、决定性细(xi)(xi)(xi)节(jie)(jie)(jie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)选取(qu)体(ti)现(xian)了(le)报道者(zhe)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)深(shen)层认(ren)识、发现(xian)能(neng)力(li)(li)和(he)表(biao)达能(neng)力(li)(li),所选取(qu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)关键影(ying)(ying)(ying)像(xiang)(xiang)和(he)决定性细(xi)(xi)(xi)节(jie)(jie)(jie)本身就(jiu)有(you)足够感(gan)染(ran)(ran)力(li)(li)和(he)说(shuo)服(fu)(fu)力(li)(li)。为(wei)(wei)了(le)适应(ying)(ying)移(yi)(yi)动(dong)传播(bo)(bo),短视(shi)(shi)频的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)叙(xu)述(shu)节(jie)(jie)(jie)奏(zou)还必须(xu)(xu)适应(ying)(ying)移(yi)(yi)动(dong)传播(bo)(bo)状(zhuang)态下人们(men)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)心理(li)需(xu)(xu)求和(he)行为(wei)(wei)需(xu)(xu)求,适应(ying)(ying)各种场(chang)景和(he)手机观(guan)(guan)看这(zhei)样的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)传播(bo)(bo)场(chang)景。拖沓(ta)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)节(jie)(jie)(jie)奏(zou)和(he)多(duo)余的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)细(xi)(xi)(xi)节(jie)(jie)(jie),会影(ying)(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)叙(xu)述(shu)逻(luo)辑和(he)叙(xu)述(shu)节(jie)(jie)(jie)奏(zou),会影(ying)(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)人们(men)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)观(guan)(guan)看意(yi)愿和(he)观(guan)(guan)看行为(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)持续(xu),从而(er)影(ying)(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)这(zhei)条时(shi)(shi)政(zheng)(zheng)短视(shi)(shi)频本身的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)传播(bo)(bo)力(li)(li)。最难也最重要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),是(shi)(shi)如何(he)体(ti)现(xian)短视(shi)(shi)频的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)“硬度(du)”,如何(he)体(ti)现(xian)思想性。这(zhei)意(yi)味着不(bu)(bu)能(neng)让(rang)(rang)短视(shi)(shi)频停留于(yu)浅(qian)传播(bo)(bo)状(zhuang)态,必须(xu)(xu)追求深(shen)层影(ying)(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)。这(zhei)就(jiu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求短视(shi)(shi)频要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)通(tong)过(guo)(guo)信(xin)息(xi)累积与深(shen)化(hua)(hua)、背(bei)景增加(jia)与意(yi)义点(dian)化(hua)(hua)而(er)体(ti)现(xian)深(shen)度(du)和(he)思想性。这(zhei)就(jiu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)以独(du)特(te)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)眼光,发现(xian)最有(you)说(shuo)服(fu)(fu)力(li)(li)和(he)魅力(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)场(chang)景和(he)细(xi)(xi)(xi)节(jie)(jie)(jie),以兼顾(gu)并(bing)打(da)通(tong)对内对外传播(bo)(bo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)思维确定报道角度(du);以挖掘、放(fang)大人们(men)不(bu)(bu)一定注(zhu)意(yi)到的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)细(xi)(xi)(xi)节(jie)(jie)(jie),含而(er)不(bu)(bu)露地(di)体(ti)现(xian)思想性;以适合移(yi)(yi)动(dong)传播(bo)(bo)和(he)年轻人接(jie)受(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)时(shi)(shi)长(zhang)、叙(xu)述(shu)节(jie)(jie)(jie)奏(zou)制作(zuo)展现(xian);并(bing)需(xu)(xu)不(bu)(bu)断探索竖屏方(fang)式表(biao)现(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)特(te)殊规律。实(shi)(shi)践中发现(xian),按(an)日常思路、以单纯(chun)新闻性细(xi)(xi)(xi)节(jie)(jie)(jie)为(wei)(wei)切入点(dian)做的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)时(shi)(shi)政(zheng)(zheng)短视(shi)(shi)频往(wang)(wang)往(wang)(wang)不(bu)(bu)能(neng)过(guo)(guo)审(shen),融(rong)合升华实(shi)(shi)际(ji)上就(jiu)是(shi)(shi)既有(you)温(wen)度(du)又有(you)硬度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)短视(shi)(shi)频的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)审(shen)稿标(biao)准,所要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求做的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)(shi),通(tong)过(guo)(guo)放(fang)大有(you)说(shuo)服(fu)(fu)力(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)细(xi)(xi)(xi)节(jie)(jie)(jie),以平实(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)方(fang)式体(ti)现(xian)温(wen)度(du)(感(gan)染(ran)(ran)力(li)(li)、接(jie)受(shou)度(du))和(he)深(shen)度(du)(思想性和(he)说(shuo)服(fu)(fu)力(li)(li)),甚至包(bao)括不(bu)(bu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)用(yong)过(guo)(guo)多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)特(te)技和(he)其他包(bao)装手段,这(zhei)不(bu)(bu)只是(shi)(shi)对制作(zuo)风格的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求,实(shi)(shi)际(ji)上是(shi)(shi)对政(zheng)(zheng)治传播(bo)(bo)特(te)质与把握标(biao)准的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求。

  在(zai)(zai)众(zhong)多主体(ti)(ti)在(zai)(zai)移动(dong)社交传播(bo)中巨量提供各种短(duan)(duan)视(shi)频(pin)(pin)、小视(shi)频(pin)(pin)时,无论(lun)从使命责任还是(shi)从竞争(zheng)策(ce)略上(shang)(shang)说,主流(liu)媒体(ti)(ti)都应当努(nu)力(li)做既有(you)温(wen)(wen)度(du)又有(you)硬度(du)的(de)短(duan)(duan)视(shi)频(pin)(pin),在(zai)(zai)融合升华中体(ti)(ti)现对(dui)温(wen)(wen)度(du)与(yu)硬度(du)相统一(yi)上(shang)(shang)的(de)把握能力(li),从而实现与(yu)受众(zhong)的(de)共鸣(ming)、共振(zhen)和共识,以(yi)内容驱(qu)动(dong)传播(bo),多出传播(bo)效果(guo)好(hao)甚至(zhi)是(shi)爆款、现象级(ji)的(de)短(duan)(duan)视(shi)频(pin)(pin)产品(pin)。

  (作者(zhe)单位:天(tian)津大学(xue)新媒体(ti)与传(chuan)播学(xue)院(yuan))

 

  *本文系国家社会科学基(ji)金(jin)重大项目“数(shu)字新闻学理论、方法与实践研(yan)究”(20&ZD317)的阶段性(xing)成果(guo)

 

 

  注释(shi):

  [1]短视频引人关注前(qian),经历过(guo)“不温(wen)不火(huo)”的过(guo)程。王晓红等认为(wei):“移动短视频应(ying)用于2011年出现(xian),到(dao)2015年在(zai)中国就已形成了(le)群雄(xiong)逐鹿的局面(mian)。然(ran)而,这(zhei)种社(she)交新方式看似起势(shi)迅猛,前(qian)途光明,但(dan)实(shi)际应(ying)用却不温(wen)不火(huo)。”王晓红,包圆圆,吕强.移动短视频的发展(zhan)现(xian)状及趋(qu)势(shi)观(guan)察[J].中国编(bian)辑,2015(3)

  [2]短(duan)(duan)(duan)视频(pin)平(ping)台的(de)(de)雷同化现(xian)象已(yi)经引起关(guan)注。吕鹏、王明漩认(ren)为(wei):“内(nei)容(rong)雷同在资(zi)讯聚(ju)合(he)类(lei)短(duan)(duan)(duan)视频(pin)平(ping)台的(de)(de)体(ti)现(xian)比较(jiao)明显,内(nei)容(rong)分类(lei)具有较(jiao)高(gao)的(de)(de)相(xiang)似性”;“自媒体(ti)短(duan)(duan)(duan)视频(pin)平(ping)台的(de)(de)界面使用和设计也高(gao)度相(xiang)似”。吕鹏,王明漩.短(duan)(duan)(duan)视频(pin)平(ping)台的(de)(de)互联网治理(li):问题及对策[J].新闻记者,2018(3)

  [3]陆小(xiao)华.电(dian)视的新竞争逻(luo)辑(ji)[J].声屏(ping)世界,2015(12)

  [4]陆小(xiao)华.最重要的创新是基于(yu)新历史方(fang)位解析(xi)中国[J].新闻战线,2018(4)

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